Allah (SWT) takes an Oath by the Ten Nights of Dhul-Hijjah:Below are the Virtues of Deeds – Faza’il-e-A’maal related with Qurbani and Bakraid Month of Dhul-Hijjah (Eid ul Azha/ Eid ul zuha)(وَٱلۡفَجۡرِ (١) وَلَيَالٍ عَشۡرٍ۬ (٢I swear by the dawn, [89:1] and by the Ten Nights, [89:2]قَالَهُ عَلِيّ وَابْن عَبَّاس وَعِكْرِمَة وَمُجَاهِد وَالسُّدِّيّ وَعَنْ مَسْرُوق وَمُحَمَّد بْن كَعْب الْمُرَاد بِهِ فَجْر يَوْم النَّحْر خَاصَّةSome commentators, like Mujahid and ‘Ikramah, refer this to the dawn of ‘the Day of Sacrifice’ on the tenth of Dhul Hijjah. A narration from Sayyidna Ibn ‘Abbas (RA) concurs with this view. (Summarised from Tasfeer Maariful Qur’aan & Tafseer Ibn Katheer)وَاللَّيَالِي الْعَشْر الْمُرَاد بِهَا عَشْر ذِي الْحِجَّة كَمَا قَالَهُ اِبْن عَبَّاس وَابْن الزُّبَيْر وَمُجَاهِد وَغَيْر وَاحِد مِنْ السَّلَف وَالْخَلَفAccording Sayyidna Ibn ‘Abbas , Qatadah, Mujahid, Suddi, Dahhak, Kalbi and other leading commentators, the ‘ten nights’ refers to the [first] ten nights of Dhul Hijjah. (Summarised from Tasfeer Maariful Qur’aan & Tafseer Ibn Katheer)
Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) declares the good deeds of 10 days to be most Superior:حدثنا هناد حدثنا أبو معاوية عن الأعمش عن مسلم هو البطين وهو ابن أبي عمران عن سعيد بن جبير عن ابن عباس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما من أيام العمل الصالح فيهن أحب إلى الله من هذه الأيام العشر فقالوا يا رسول الله ولا الجهاد في سبيل الله فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا الجهاد في سبيل الله إلا رجل خرج بنفسه وماله فلم يرجع من ذلك بشيء وفي الباب عن ابن عمر وأبي هريرة وعبد الله بن عمرو وجابر قال أبو عيسى حديث ابن عباس حديث حسن صحيح غريبNarrated Ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet said, “No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul Hijja).” Then some companions of the Prophet said, “Not even Jihad?” He replied, “Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah’s sake) and does not return with any of those things.” (Reported by Tirmidhi)
Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) used to fast all 9 days including Arafah:حدثنا مسدد حدثنا أبو عوانة عن الحر بن الصباح عن هنيدة بن خالد عن امرأته عن بعض أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قالت كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصوم تسع ذي الحجة ويوم عاشوراء وثلاثة أيام من كل شهرOne of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Allah’s Messenger used to fast the [first] nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of ‘Ashurah, and three days of each month.” (Reported by Abu Dawud).
Fasting on Arafah day is an expiation for sins committed the year before and the year after:حدثنا أحمد بن عبدة أنبأنا حماد بن زيد حدثنا غيلان بن جرير عن عبد الله بن معبد الزماني عن أبي قتادة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم صيام يوم عرفة إني أحتسب على الله أن يكفر السنة التي قبله والتي بعدهAbu Qatadah (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Fasting on the day of ‘Arafah is an expiation (of sins) for two years, the year preceding it and the year following it. (Reported by Ibn Majah)
Sacrificing an animal is an established Sunnah on Eid day:حدثنا حجاج قال حدثنا شعبة قال أخبرني زبيد قال سمعت الشعبي عن البراء قال سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يخطب فقال إن أول ما نبدأ من يومنا هذا أن نصلي ثم نرجع فننحر فمن فعل فقد أصاب سنتناNarrated Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib (RA) that I heard the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) say when he gave a sermon (on the day of Idal-Adha), “The first thing we will do on this day of ours, is to offer the (‘Id) prayer and then return to slaughter the sacrifice. Whoever does so, he acted according to our Sunna (tradition). (Reported by Bukhari)
Eating, drinking, enjoying and reciting Ayamul-Tashreeq: 11th, 12th & 13th of Dhul-Hijjah:
وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْ تَأَخَّرَ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ
[2:203] Recite the name of Allah during the given number of days. Then whoever is early in leaving after two days, there is no sin on him, and whoever leaves later, there is no sin on him, if he is God-fearing. Fear Allah and be sure that you are going to be gathered before Him.
قَالَ اِبْن عَبَّاس : الْأَيَّام الْمَعْدُودَات أَيَّام التَّشْرِيق وَالْأَيَّام الْمَعْلُومَات أَيَّام الْعَشْر . وَقَالَ عِكْرِمَة ” وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّه فِي أَيَّام مَعْدُودَات ” يَعْنِي التَّكْبِير فِي أَيَّام التَّشْرِيق بَعْد الصَّلَوَات الْمَكْتُوبَات : اللَّه أَكْبَر اللَّه أَكْبَر . وَقَالَ الْإِمَام أَحْمَد : حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيع حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْن عَلِيّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ : سَمِعْت عُقْبَة بْن عَامِر قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُول اللَّه – صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – ” يَوْم عَرَفَة وَيَوْم النَّحْر وَأَيَّام التَّشْرِيق عِيدُنَا أَهْل الْإِسْلَام وَهِيَ أَيَّام أَكْلٍ وَشُرْبٍ
Ibn Abbas (RA) said, “The given number of days are the Ayamul-Tashreeq And the known days are the ten. Ikramah (RA) said, “Remember Allah (SWT) in the given number of days i.e. recite the Takbeer (Allahu Akbarm Allahu Akbar) in Ayamul-Tashreeq after the Fardh (obligatory) Prayers). Uqbah Ibn Amir (RA) narrates that Rasul-ullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said that the day of Arafah, the day of Sacrifice and the Ayanul-Tashreeq are our days (for people of Islam) and eat and drink in these days. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer)
فَقَالَ عُمَر بْن الْخَطَّاب وَعَلِيّ بْن أَبِي طَالِب وَابْن عَبَّاس : ( يُكَبِّر مِنْ صَلَاة الصُّبْح يَوْم عَرَفَة إِلَى الْعَصْر مِنْ آخِر أَيَّام التَّشْرِيق
Umar Ibn Khattab (RA), Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) & Ibn Abbas (RA) said, “Recite the Takbeer from the Fajar of the day of Arafah until the Asar of the last day of Ayamul-Tashreeq (13th of Dhul-Hijjah). (Tafseer of Imam Qurtubi)
وَفِي الْمُخْتَصَر عَنْ مَالِك : اللَّه أَكْبَر اللَّه أَكْبَر , لَا إِلَه إِلَّا اللَّه , وَاَللَّه أَكْبَر , اللَّه أَكْبَر وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْد
And in Summary it is narrated from Imam Malik (RA) [about the Takbeer] Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La Ilaha Illallah, Wallahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Wallilahil Hamd
Takbeer Tashreeq is the recitation of Allahu akbar, La ilaha illa hu Wallahu akbar, Allahu akbar wa lillahil hamd after every fardh salaah commencing from the Fajr of the 9th of Dhul Hijah until after Asr of the 13th of Dhul Hijjah. (Shami vol. 1 pg. 406)
When Ibrahim (AS) began moving the knife on his beloved son, Ismaeel (AS), the angels sent by Allah with a ram exclaimed. Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar (Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest). Ibrahim (AS) heard the voice of the angels and replied, La illah illa Allahu Wallahu akbar (There is no god besides Allah, and Allah is the greatest).
His son Ismaeel (AS) heard this conversation and understood that Allah had relieved him from this great rial, thus he replied, Allahu Akbar Walillahil hamd (Allah is the greatest, and to Allah belongs all praise)(Ibid).
Mustahab (Prefferable) NOT to cut any hair or trim any nails if one is preparing to make a sacrifice for Eid:
حدثنا ابن أبي عمر المكي حدثنا سفيان عن عبد الرحمن بن حميد بن عبد الرحمن بن عوف سمع سعيد بن المسيب يحدث عن أم سلمة أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إذا دخلت العشر وأراد أحدكم أن يضحي فلا يمس من شعره وبشره شيئا قيل لسفيان فإن بعضهم لا يرفعه قال لكني أرفعه
Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “When anyone of you intends to sacrifice the animal and enter in the month of Dhul-Hijjah, he should not get his hair cut or nails pared till he has offered his sacrifice.” (Reported by Muslim)
Note: Ulama have stated that this includes moustache and hair of the private parts etc. However, if the hair under the arms and in the pubic region is very long (which renders the Salaat Makrooh i.e. more than forty days), then it will become compulsory to remove such hair. However, if a person forgets to clip the nails before the 1st of Dhul Hijjah and the nails have grown so long that they may cause injury, then he may clip them.
1. Islamic method of slaughtering animal
( The Islamic method of slaughtering animals, known as ‘Zabiha’ .)
‘Zakkaytum’ is a verb derived from the root word ‘Zakaah’ (to purify). Its infinitive is ‘Tazkiyah’, which means purification. The Islamic mode of slaughtering an animal requires the following conditions to be met:
a. The animal should be slaughtered with a sharp object (knife)
The animal has to be slaughtered with a sharp object (knife) and in a fast way so that the pain of slaughter is minimised.
b. Cut wind pipe, throat and vessels of neck
‘Zabiha’ is an Arabic word which means ‘slaughtered’. The ‘slaughtering’ is to be done by cutting the throat, windpipe and the blood vessels in the neck causing the animal’s death, but without cutting the spinal cord.
c. Blood should be drained
The blood has to be drained completely before the head is removed. The purpose is to drain out most of the blood, which would otherwise serve as a good culture medium for micro organisms. Hence, for this purpose, the spinal cord must not be cut, otherwise the nerve fibers to the heart would be damaged during the process causing cardiac arrest, resulting in stagnation of the blood in the blood vessels.
2. Blood is a good medium for germs and bacteria
Blood is a good medium for germs, bacteria, toxins, etc. Therefore the Muslim way of slaughtering is more hygienic as most of the blood containing germs, bacteria, toxins, etc. that are the cause of several diseases are eliminated.
3. Meat remains fresh for a longer time
Meat slaughtered by Islamic way remains fresh for a longer time due to deficiency of blood in the meat as compared to other methods of slaughtering.
4. Animal does not feel pain
The swift cutting of vessels of the neck disconnects the flow of blood to the nerve of the brain responsible for pain. Thus the animal does not feel pain. While dying, the animal appears to struggle, writhe, shake and kick, not due to pain, but due to the contraction and relaxation of the muscles deficient in blood and due to the flow of blood out of the body.
2. The Qur’an says Prophet prohibits what is bad
Islam prohibits the eating of carnivorous animals like lions, tigers, leopards, etc. who are violent and ferocious. The consumption of the meat of such animals would probably make a person violent and ferocious. Islam only allows the eating of herbivorous animals like goats, cattle, sheep, etc. that are peaceful and docile. We Muslims eat peaceful and docile animals because we are peace loving and non-violent people.
The Qur’an says: “The Prophet commands them what is just and prohibits what is evil. He allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them what is bad (and impure),” [Al-A’raf 7: 157]
“So take what the Messenger assigns to you and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.” [Al-Hashr 59: 7]
For a Muslim, the Prophet’s statement is sufficient to convince him that Allah does not wish humans to eat some kinds of meat while allowing some other kinds.
3. Hadith prohibiting eating of carnivorous animals
According to various authentic Ahaadith narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim including hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas in Sahih Muslim, Book of hunting and slaughter, Hadith No. 4752 and Sunan Ibn-i-Majah chapter 13 Hadith no. 3232 to 3234, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) prohibited the eating of:
(i) Wild animals with canine teeth, i.e. meat eating carnivorous animals. These are animals belonging to the cat families such as lions, tigers, cats, dogs, wolfs, hyenas, etc.
(ii) Certain rodents like mice, rats, rabbits with claws, etc.
(iii) Certain reptiles like snakes, alligators, etc.
(iv) Birds of prey with talons or claws, like vultures, eagle, crows, owl, etc.
Mufti Ahmadul Qaderi Misbahi
Founder of Darul Uloom Azizia, Dallas, TX
Omair Abdul Jabbar Qaderi, Student of Darul Uloom Azizia
The Fazail and Masail of Qurbani
To zabh (slaughter) a specific animal in the days of Nahr is Qurbani.
The Qurbani is the sunnat of Sayeduna Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam). Muslims were told to do Qurbani, Allah Tabaraka wa Ta’la says:
Therefore offer prayer for your Lord, and do the sacrifice. (Quran 110:2)
Ahadith and Aasar
Hadith 1: Sayeduna Zaid bin Arqam Radi Allahu anhu narrates the Sahabae Kiram asked the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam), “Ya Rasool Allah, what is Qurabani?”
He (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “This is the Sunnat of your father Ibraheem (Alahis Salaam).”
Sahaba said, “Ya Rasool Allah, what sawaab will we get in this?”
He (Swallal Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “A virtue for every hair (on the animal).”
(Ahmad, Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 2: Sayedatuna Aisha (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that Rasool Allah said, “There is no dearer deed of Ibne Adam in the days of Qurbani than flowing the blood (doing Qurbani) and that animal will come with his horns, hairs, and hooves on the day of Qayamt. Thee blood of the Qurbani reaches the stage of acceptance before it reaches the floor. (Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 3: Sayeduna Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Whoever has the means and does not do Qurbani should not come near our place of Eid. (Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 4: Sayeduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “The wealth which is spent on Qurbani on the day of Eid, there is no dearer wealth than it. (Tabrani)
Hadith 5: Imam Ahmad (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “The best Qurbani is the one which expensive in price and very fat. (Imam Ahmad)
Hadith 6: Sayeduna Ali (Karam Allahu wajahaul kareem) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Four animals are not proper for Qurbani:
1) One eyed whose one eyedness is evident
2) Ill whose illness is visible
3) Crippled whose crippled ness is visible
4) Thin whose bones don’t have marrow
(Imam Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasaee, Ibnu Majah, Darmi)
Hadith 7: Sayeduna Ali (Karam Allahu wajahaul kareem) narrates that, “Rasool Allahu (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) stopped us from Qurbani of [an animal whose] ears are cut and horns are broken. (Imam Ahmad, Ibnu Majah)
Hadith 8: Sayeduna Abdullah Ibn Masood (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “In Qurbani, a cow is from seven and a camel is from seven.” (Tabrani)
Hadith 9: Sayeduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Rasool Allah (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) stopped us from Qurbani in the night.”
Hadith 10: Sayedatuna Ume Salma (Radi Allahu anha) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “When you see the moon of Zul Hijjah and any one of you wants to do Qurbani, he should stop from shaving or cutting his hair and trimming his nails. (Muslim)
Hadith 11: Sayeduna Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I have been ordered for the Yaumul Adha (The Day of Adha), Allah has made this day an Eid for the ummat.
A man asked, “Ya Rasool Allah, tell me if I have no animal besides a maneeha, so can I do Qurbani with it?
He said, “No, but cut your hair, nails, and mustache and shave the hair below the navel, in this your Qurbani will be fulfilled near Allah.” (Abu Dawood, Nisaee)
That is, whoever does not have the means to do Qurbani will get the reward for Qurbani by doing these things.
Some Important Masail
Masala 1: With regard to Qurbani, sahibul Nisaab is the person who
A) Owns 52 ½ taula of silver (612.4 grams, 19.75 ounces) or 7 ½ taula of gold
(87.48 grams, 2.82 ounces)
B) Or owns the equivalent of the price of these in business possessions or non-business possessions
C) Or owns equivalent of naqd [cash] or money
And the owned possessions are more than the hajate asalia [explaned in Masala 2].
Masala 2: Hajate asalia, that is, the things which are necessary to for a livelihood. Possessions of these things does not make Qurbani nor Zakat wajib. Like the house to live in, the clothes to wear in the summer and winter, possessions the household, animals or cars for transportation, equipment for work, and books for the people of knowledge.
Masala 3: By books it is meant the Quran, Hadith, Usool of Hadith, Usool of Fiqh, Ilm Kalaam, Akhlaq, and other religious books. Just like this, books of medicine are hajate asalia for a doctor.
Masala 4: Besides this, more than copy of books such as religious books, Nahw, Sarf, Nujoom, Stories, Deewan, and other books are not hajate asalia. If their value reaches nisab then Qurbani is wajib.
Masala 5: Quran Majeed is not hajate asalia for a Hafiz.
Masala 6: Qurbani is not wajib on a musafir (traveler) even if he is wealthy. Although, if he wishes to do Qurbani for Nafl reward then he may do so.
Masala 7: If a woman has jewelry given to her by her father or any other possessions which she owns which reaches the value of nisab then Qurbani is wajib on her also. This is the order of every year.
Masala 8: If a Malikun Nisaab (owner of Nisaab) does Qurbani in his name at one time and if he is a malikun nisaab the next year then it is wajib on him to do Qurbani [for that year]. This is the order of every year. (Tirmizi)
Masala 9: If malikun nisaab person does Qurbani in someone else’s name besides himself and not in his name then he is a grave sinner. So, if one wants to Qurbani for someone else then he should make arrangements for another Qurbani for the other person.
Animals of Qurbani
Masala 10: Male or female camel, cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, and ram are all permissible.
Masala 11: A camel must of 5 years, a cow and buffalo of 2 years, a goat, sheep, and ram of 1 year. If the animal is younger than this then qurbani is not permissible, if older than this then it is permissible, in fact it is better. However, if the six-month old offspring of sheep or ram is so big that from looking from afar the sheep or ram looks like a year old then it is permissible.
Masala 12: It is wajib for a sahibun nisaab to slaughter one goat or to slaughter a seventh of camel, cow, and buffalo, it is not permissible to slaughter less than one seventh of the animal.
Masala 13: To slaughter more than a seventh is permissible such as five or six persons slaughtering a cow or buffalo, rather, one person may do qurbani of a whole cow.
The Days of Qurbani
Masala 14: The time for Qurbani is from the dusk of dawn on the 10th of Zul Hijjah to the sunset of the 12th of Zul Hijjah, that is, two days and three nights.
Masala 15: The best date for Qurbani is the 10th of Zul Hijjah, then 11th, and then the 12th.
Masala 16: It is not Jaiz (permissible) to do Qurbani before the Salah of Eid in the city.
The Ahkam of Meat and Skin
Masala 17: One may eat the meat of Qurbani himself or give it to a poor or wealthy person or feed them, rather, it is mustahab (better) that the one who has done the Qurbani also eats some from the Qurabni.
Masala 18: It is best for the one who will do Qurbani that to not eat or drink anything from dusk of dawn on the 10th of Zul Hijjah and when the Qurbani is done, he eat from it’s meat.
Masala 19: It is better to divide the meat into three parts in such a way that one for the Fuqaraa and Masakeen (the poor and needy), one part for the friends and relatives, and one part for his own household. If the household persons are many then he my feed all of the meat to his household.
Masala 20: If one did Qurbani on behalf of a deceased person then he may eat the meat himself and feed it to his friends and relatives, that is, if the deceased had not made waseeah (willed) this Qurbani otherwise give all in Sadqa.
Masala 21: If the Qurbani is done because of a mannat (vow) then one can not eat the meat himself nor can he feed to the wealthy rather it is wajib to give it in Sadqa, the vower my be a wealthy or poor person.
Masala 22: It is not permissible to give the meat to a Kafir.
Masala 23: It is not permissible to give the leather or meat or any part of it to the butcher or to the one who did the slaughter (for you) as a payment.
Leather of Qurbani
Masala 24: It is not permissible to sell the leather/skin of the Qurbani and bring the money into personal use. However, one may use the leather/skin for personal use.
Masala 25: Many people give the skin to religious Madarsas which is a afdal(best) and the means of getting great reward. At times, it is difficult to send the skin to the madarsas so people sell the skin and send the money to the madarsas which is also no problem.
The Way of Zabh (Slaughter)
Masala 26: Four arteries are to be cut whilst slaughtering. If three of the four arteries are cut or most of the each four arteries are cut then the slaughterd is Halal.
Masala 27: If one purposely did not say Arabic text (that is, did not take the name of Allah) then the animal is haraam. If he forgot then the animal is halal
Masala 28: If one handed over the animal to the butcher before completely slaughtering the animal then the butcher must also say Arabic text before proceeding with slaughtering the animal.
Masala 29: To slaughter in such a way that the knife reaches the haraam magz (spinal cord ) or that the head comes off is makrooh (undesirable) but the animal can be eaten, that is, the undesirability is with this action not with the zabeeha (slaughter).
Masala 30: The same order applies for a woman as does for a man, that is, the slaughter of a woman (performed by a woman) is permissible.
Masala 31: The slaughter of a Mushrik or Murtad (performed by them) is dead and haraam.
The Way of Qurbani
Place the animal of Qurbani on the left side in such a way that its’ face is towards the Qibla and put the left leg on its side. And say this duaa before slaughtering:
Then slaughter the animal with a sharp knife whilst reading:
If the Qurbani is for oneself then read the following duaa after the zabh (slaughter):
If the Qurbani is on another’s behalf then in the above arabic dua replace with , then the name of the person